Welcome David Axe (WarIsBoring.com) (Wired.com) (Twitter) and Host Zack Beauchamp (ThinkProgress) (Twitter)

Army of God: Joseph Kony’s War In Central Africa

I finished Army of God while standing outside a DC metro station, after exiting for my final stop — it’s a gripping book, one filled with striking images that hammer home the visceral, immersive terror of the Lord’s Resistance Army’s (LRA) raids on Congolese villages. It also raises, for progressives committed to resolving the humanitarian monstrosity that is the ongoing violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), difficult questions about just what kinds of government intervention and non-state activism might make a real difference.

David Axe’s narrative lays plain just how hard a nut the LRA is to crack. Emerging in Uganda in 1986, the LRA and its brutal leader, Joseph Kony, have taken advantage of the porous borders and densely forested terrain in central Africa to evade capture by the series of international forces tasked with eliminating them over the past two decades. While Axe reports that repeated campaigns have whittled the LRA down to (roughly) a few hundred soldiers, the Army is still capable of reenacting all of the terrors — mass murder, rape, and enslavement of children — that have deservedly made its destruction a priority for the international community.

But what can the rest of the world do? Though President Obama has signed legislation committing the US to a strategy for defeating the LRA, we don’t have much to show for it. Army of God casts doubt on whether a recently claimed accomplishment, capturing the LRA “fourth in command,” really was a much of a coup as the US government and local allies make it out to be. An unusually muscular UN force is currently on its way to the DRC to hunt for the LRA and other similar groups like the M23 militia. Its effectiveness remains to be seen.

My point isn’t to raise doubts about whether we should be actively searching for Kony and his ilk; anyone who can read this book and come away with that conclusion has a moral screw loose. I defy anyone who tries to read the chapters telling the story of LRA victims and tell me “it’s not our problem.”

Rather, the question is whether our global institutions are good enough to meet the moral challenges they face. Progressives believe in a law-governed world in which all persons are free from deprivation and fear, but, as we’re all aware, these two ideals can be at odds: the legalistic inefficiency of the UN can undermine its ability to meet the needs of the world’s most disadvantaged. Figuring out how global institutions can be reformed to deal with the LRA and groups like it (Axe notes that the LRA is more a product of systemic chaos than a sui generis group) will, I suspect, become one of the critical questions of 21st century global politics.

But fighting monsters like Kony isn’t merely the province of governments. Axe devotes a full chapter, and significant praise, to the group Invisible Children, the folks behind the “Kony 2012″ video. Indeed, he goes as far as to recommend them as a charity worth donating to at the end of the book. He’s somewhat less charitable to the group’s critics, literally caricaturing some of them in the vein of the talking heads in that most famous of graphic novels, Frank Miller’s The Dark Knight Returns.

The critics of Invisible Children weren’t, for the most part, knee-jerk anti-aid libertarians; they were generally academics, advocates, and development professionals deeply committed to the welfare of the people in the Congo. I encourage you to read as much of the massive debate the group set off, on both sides, as you can find time for — there’s a great compendium here. In short, the critics argued that Invisible Children consciously constructed a narrative that made white foreigners into saviors and Africans into passive victims, a frame that underpins a lot of bad development work. They wondered if Invisible Children’s simple answer (“Get Kony”) obscured complicated policy questions. They raised questions about Invisible Children’s funding allocation decisions. And they pointed out that it’s hard to draw a straight line between any of Invisible Children’s campaigns and any real, on-the-ground accomplishments.

I’ll leave you to resolve the merits of the Kony 2012 campaign and Invisible Children more broadly below. I raise the criticisms only to 1) give a second side of the story and 2) broaden the scope of our conversation a bit — if Kony 2012 worked (or didn’t), what does that tell us about human rights activism more generally? What can progressives do to make their government do more to stop gross human rights abuses around the world?

If there’s one thing to take from Army of God, it’s that these are questions we can’t afford to ignore. The depth of Axe’s experience in the Congo, and his care for its people, shines through every page. Tim Hamilton’s illustrations, inspired by study of several traditional African styles, lay bare the fundamentally human stakes in a way that plain photographs often can’t. Army of God is, most of all, a profoundly humanistic work, in the best sense of the term. It reminds us that, as far away as the Congo is, its residents deserve the same sympathy and respect as the people down the block.

I look forward to talking to with you all and David about this wonderful little book.

 

[As a courtesy to our guests, please keep comments to the book and be respectful of dissenting opinions.  Please take other conversations to a previous thread. - bev]

78 Responses to “FDL Book Salon Welcomes David Axe, Army of God: Joseph Kony’s War In Central Africa”

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 1:49 pm

David, Welcome back to the Lake.

Zack, Welcome to the Lake, and thank you for Hosting today’s Book Salon.


For our new readers/commenters:

To follow along, you will have to refresh your browser:
PC = F5 key, MAC = Command+R keys

If you want to ask a question
– just type it in the Leave Your Response box & Submit Comment.


If you are responding to a comment – use the Reply button under the number, then type your response in the box, Submit Comment. (Using Submit Comment will refresh your browser when you reply to a comment/ask a question.)

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 1:57 pm

I’m here.

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 1:58 pm
In response to David Axe @ 2

Hi David, welcome back!

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 1:59 pm
In response to BevW @ 3

Thanks. Great to be here.

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 2:00 pm
In response to David Axe @ 4

Great to be with you, David. Let’s get started.

dakine01 May 11th, 2013 at 2:00 pm

Good afternoon David and welcome back to FDL.

Zack, welcome to Firedoglake this afternoon.

David I have not had an opportunity to read your book but Zack’s intro makes me know that it would be a heartrending read. It seems that there are no good options, even if well-meaning people could agree as to the appropriate steps that might solve the problem.

Is there a way to get rid of a Kony and his ilk short of destruction of forests and scorched earth type policies?

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 2:02 pm

David, let’s kick off with a question that’s implicit in my review — what would you say if you were locked in a room with Invisible Children’s critics?

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:03 pm
In response to dakine01 @ 6

Well, nobody’s proposing burning down any forests.

The lazy answer is a threefold one:

1) Better governance and security in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

2) Foreign military assistance aimed at capturing LRA leaders.

3) Humanitarian assistance to mitigate the effects of the LRA.

But we’re already trying all these things …

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:04 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 7

I’d ask them how many people they had educated about the LRA compared to IC. IC, for all its flaws, got a lot of people to care about Congo who previously didn’t.

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 2:05 pm
In response to David Axe @ 8

1) is a particularly hard problem. The research and reporting on development has, in recent years, swung around to the view that quality of governance is one of, if not the, critical variable in helping developing nations escape poverty and war (see “Why Nations Fail” for an interesting take on this general theme), yet there isn’t much of a consensus on how to do it yet.

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 2:06 pm
In response to David Axe @ 9

To press the point a bit, what do you think was accomplished by said education, concretely speaking?

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:06 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 10

One thing we should not lose sight of is that we’re winning the war against the LRA, although slowly and painfully. The group has gotten steadily smaller over the years, its movements restricted and its victims fewer. It’s possible the LRA will just die out in time, leaving many many corpses in its path.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:07 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 11

I believe a sustained campaign of international assistance requires a measure of public awareness and support. IC helps bolster the public support in the U.S. for security and humanitarian assistance in DRC.

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 2:12 pm
In response to David Axe @ 12

Absolutely — it’s really important in conversations about development and civil war not to succumb to fatalism, as it’s quite clear that humanitarian efforts in the past 50 years have made a profound difference.

But one thing that troubled me a bit at the end of Army of God is the idea that the LRA isn’t just this group is less about Kony as a charismatic leader, and more about the chaos that allowed him to emerge. You suggest this means that another group — say, M23 — might end up taking the LRA’s murderous place. How is progress on the background systemic issue coming?

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 2:12 pm

How many different organizations, NGOs, governments, are in the Congo / Uganda looking for Kony and the LRA?

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:15 pm
In response to BevW @ 15

Bev: Scores of NGOs work the humanitarian angle, but far fewer play a direct role in military efforts, which are largely handled by the U.N., the U.S. and the Ugandan and Congolese governments. Invisible Children has a program handing out radios to isolated communities so they can report LRA sightings to the military.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:18 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 14

The DRC is way more peaceful than it was just 10 years ago, to say nothing of 20 years ago, but it’s still a pretty violent and unstable place and will likely remain so for a long time. We should draw a distinction between the various armed groups in the region. M23′s rebellion is fueled by the failure of the DRC government to make good on the terms of peace deals with rebel fighters who were brought into the government in years past. By contrast, the LRA does not have specific grievance against the DRC government. It is a pseudo-religious personality cult that kills to survive. You can destroy the LRA and it won’t come back, whereas other armed groups spring from the power dynamics and political grievances of a badly governed country.

Elliott May 11th, 2013 at 2:20 pm

How is Kony -and his ilk- getting their weapons?

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 2:21 pm

Here’s another thought I had reading the book. Reports about problems in Africa are often plagued by a tendency to depict Africans as passive receptacles rather than people with agency; I thought Army of God was clearly very aware of this problem, even ending on a note about how ordinary Congolese are the most important actors in the fight against violence in the DRC. Do you think that this is a common problem in reporting about Africa, and how much did you think about avoiding the trope while working on Army of God?

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:23 pm
In response to Elliott @ 18

Elliot: Good question.

1) They steal them from Congolese troops, who are poorly trained and tend to retreat when attacked.

2) For a long time the LRA was paid and supplied by the government of Sudan, which wanted to keep the LRA active so that the group would cause trouble for the breakaway region of South Sudan.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:25 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 19

Zack: Oh yes, that is a big problem and I didn’t want to fall into that trap. Near the end of the book I spend some time with the arrow boys, who are the village militias in Congo and CAR that use homemade weapons to fight the LRA. The arrow boys do this all on their own and at great risk to themselves. More fundamentally, I hope I make it clear in the book that Congo is poorly governed and its armed forces are crap — two contributors to the LRA’s survival.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:25 pm
In response to David Axe @ 20

And also they use machetes, which are easy to get.

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 2:30 pm

How many trips did you make to Africa to research this book? Could you describe one of your trips, types of travel, guides?, how did you contact the subjects in the book?

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 2:32 pm
In response to David Axe @ 13

I wanted to zoom out on this point a bit. Support for foreign aid and humanitarian assistance is one of the oddest things in American public opinion. Polls generally say people want to cut it, but down to like 10 percent of the budget — they think it’s something like 20, even though it’s far, far, FAR smaller than 10 percent. I wonder if that’s reflective of a deep moral selfishness, an idea that Americans are more important than the Congolese, or something else. And I wonder if it presents a catch-22 for aid advocates, in that more public support is critical for saving aid, but building a movement that can build more public support requires more an existing reserve of volunteers — that is, more public support.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:34 pm
In response to BevW @ 23

I have been to Africa many times, mostly Central and East Africa. I have been to Uganda briefly a couple times and, most importantly, I spent six weeks in DRC in late 2010 reporting for the book. I started in the capital of Kinshasa in the west to talk with NGOs and military people then moved east to LRA territory to visit affected villages and see the U.N. and NGOs in action. That’s where I met Invisible Children.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:36 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 24

Ha, yeah, many Americans are selfish, it’s true. And you must constantly remind them that there’s a world outside U.S. borders. Even harder is showing many Americans that there’s a connection between their daily lives and the suffering of villagers in eastern DRC. Much of the conflict and bad governance in DRC is tied to illegal mining, which supplies the rare minerals that Americans and other wealthy people need for their laptops, cell phones, etc.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:37 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 24

But I’m not sure it takes a LOT of people to change a lot of minds. IC did it, with a simple video.

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 2:39 pm
In response to David Axe @ 26

The conflict minerals question is interesting. Is there a good legislative fix for that? It’s not something I know very much about.

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 2:41 pm

Background – Conflict Minerals

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:42 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 28

I’d propose better regulation in the U.S. and in supplies countries to ensure coltan and other high-tech materials come from legitimate sources. Also, we should all be prepared to pay a lot more for our electronics, in order to reflect the TRUE cost of producing them.

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 2:43 pm
In response to David Axe @ 27

Certainly raised some awareness, but we’re still lacking in an effective “Congo lobby,” much less a “global justice” lobby. Maybe that one’s a pipedream, but given the moral progress we’ve made in getting people to care about people they used to think were outside the sphere of moral concern, maybe it’s not.

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 2:45 pm
In response to David Axe @ 25

What did you think of the UN peacekeepers you met there? You interview with them, if I recall correctly, is the only time you make a drawn appearance in Army of God.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:49 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 32

Yes, I do appear in the peacekeeper chapter. Got to make sure I’m in there somewhere!

I met three U.N. contingents:

The Indonesian engineers were fantastic: hard-working, eager to talk, passionate about Congo.

The Bangladeshi aviators were a little harder to talk to but their commitment to making a difference in Congo seemed sincere.

The Moroccan infantry, on the other hand, were shit birds. Uninterested in being there.

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 2:53 pm
In response to David Axe @ 33

“Shit birds?” Ouch. How did their disinterest affect their performance/were they shitty in other ways?

Also, what are your hopes for the new UN deployment?

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:56 pm

They did not seem interested in patrolling, which was the only way they were going to have any meaningful effect on LRA activities.

As for the new U.N. deployment … I’ve watched with interest as U.N. forces have gotten heavier and more combat-oriented over the years. The best example is the A.U.-U.N. force in Somalia, which after years of fighting actually managed to mostly settle that conflict last year. A more hardcore U.N. can make a big difference, but sustaining an international army like that is going to be expensive, and require so pretty impressive leadership.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:56 pm
In response to David Axe @ 35

Anybody else out there? Don’t be shy!

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 2:57 pm

Did you know of Bosco – is he part of the LRA?
Saw this article about his surrender.

On March 18, a Congolese warlord known as Bosco “the Terminator” Ntaganda surrendered to the U.S. Embassy in Rwanda. Notorious for his alleged butchering of communities, including a 2008 massacre in which 150 people were killed by machetes, clubs and bullets, Ntaganda will likely face trial at the International Criminal Court for war crimes seven years after his indictment.

http://www.enoughproject.org/blogs/cnn-op-ed-congos-terminator-surrenders-what-next-peace

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 2:59 pm
In response to BevW @ 37

Ntganda was with M23, which has no ties to the LRA.

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 3:00 pm
In response to David Axe @ 30

Are the conflict minerals “mined” by US Corporations, or are the minerals bought off of the black market by the US Corporations – if they are getting into US products?

Is there a way to identify where the minerals come from – like “blood diamonds”?

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:03 pm

Countries like Burundi and Uganda smuggle the coltan from DRC and launder it for the international market.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:04 pm

Almost all coltan comes from Congo. The question is which portion of it is illegally mined. Hard to tell.

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 3:04 pm

Could you tell us about the school teacher – and his back story?

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 3:06 pm
In response to BevW @ 42

I’d also be interested if there were any updates about Patricia, a girl abducted by LRA in one of the book’s most heartrending chapters, that didn’t make it into the book.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:09 pm
In response to BevW @ 42

Frederick, the teacher, lost almost all his students in an LRA attack — especially the girls, who were taken as sex slaves. A refugee, he set up a school for refugee children and eeked out a living supporting his elderly father. He got to meet Hillary Clinton in a video chat.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:11 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 43

I haven’t heard what has happened to Patricia (not her real name). When I met her she was under the protection of the local Catholic Church in Dungu, DRC, as well as of an Italian NGO that cares for LRA victims. Her future is pretty bleak, despite international assistance. The local stigma against “LRA brides,” and rape victims in general, is pretty strong.

CTuttle May 11th, 2013 at 3:11 pm

Aloha, David and Zack…! I cover the MENA and I was wondering how the Libyan fiasco and the Arab Awakening has affected Equatorial Africa…? Has North Sudan stopped funding the LRA…?

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 3:13 pm

While we’re talking about individuals, David, what role do you think telling individual stories (versus, say, broad-scale history or political science) plays in helping to get people to understand the reality of what’s happening in the Congo?

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 3:17 pm
In response to David Axe @ 45

What type of assistance is given by the NGOs? Housing? Psychological counseling? Are the girls taken to a different part of the country away from the conflict? Are the reunited with their families?

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:18 pm
In response to CTuttle @ 46

Yes, South Sudan has been shamed into cutting off the LRA. Also, the division of Sudan — with South Sudan becoming an independent country backed by the U.S. — is a done deal. Sudan had used the LRA to destabilize the south, but that’s not longer a viable strategy.

But no, I haven’t seen the Awakening having much effect in Central Africa. Few Arabs in the region (except in Sudan). And few Muslims (except, again, in Sudan). It’s a mostly ethnic-Africa, Christian region with some trade ties to North Africa and the Middle East, but few strong cultural ties.

But correct me if I’m wrong. Do you sense the Arab Spring playing out in Sudan or elsewhere in Central Africa?

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:20 pm
In response to BevW @ 48

Escort, medical aid, counseling, education and housing. An LRA bride is pretty much isolated and shunned, so she relies heavily on foreign assistance or extraordinary acts of charity by natives.

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 3:20 pm
In response to CTuttle @ 46

It’s an interesting question. Since late April, there have been reports that Sudan has gone back to at least tolerating the LRA, and perhaps outright supporting it. They used to for a while, but recently, the sense was that the LRA had been principally based in the DRC and, to a lesser extent, Uganda.

See here for an overview of the recent reports — http://www.voanews.com/content/human-rights-groups-say-lra-safe-havens-are-in-sudan/1656124.html. It’s complicated because it’s hard to disentangle Sudanese government support from the ongoing conflict on the South Sudan border in South Kordofan and Blue Nile.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:21 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 47

You’ve got to strike that balance between the big political history and the small individual story. Best to shift from one to the other and back, constantly modulating. The individuals make you care. The history gives you context.

stevelaudig May 11th, 2013 at 3:22 pm

Individuals, still living, in the US bear great responsibility for this disaster beginning with the Eisenhower administration which arranged the violent overthrow of a widely supported government. The US then supported a bloody tyrant for thirty years. Check the wiki on Mobutu. Another US imperial serial murderer.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:26 pm
In response to stevelaudig @ 53

Oh yes, U.S. Cold War strategy ran amuck in Africa. That’s a disaster that’s not unique to the DRC, but plays out in other countries as well — Somalia, most notably. We vied with the Soviets for influence and didn’t worry too much about the long-term consequences. But I would argue that European colonialism has had much worse effects over the long term, especially in Congo, which was brutally ruled by the Belgians for a century.

CTuttle May 11th, 2013 at 3:27 pm
In response to David Axe @ 49

As you note that you’re not seeing it in Central Africa, however I do see a lot of spillover from the Libyan fiasco, which is still a monumental clusterf*ck, negatively affecting Algeria, Chad, Mali, and Niger…!

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 3:31 pm
In response to David Axe @ 54

especially in Congo, which was brutally ruled by the Belgians for a century

Was this similar to the the British in India?

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:31 pm
In response to CTuttle @ 55

True, but the DRC is a very different place than Mali or Chad. A largely Christian country whose major security risks lie on its eastern border, with meddling neighbors and a vast and largely lawless forest region.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:32 pm
In response to BevW @ 56

Yes. Quite brutal.

CTuttle May 11th, 2013 at 3:33 pm
In response to stevelaudig @ 53

Susan Rice certainly comes to mind…!

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 3:33 pm
In response to CTuttle @ 55

I’m not so sure you can reduce the regional problems, particularly Mali, to consequences from the Libya intervention or conflict. First, it’s not clear that the intervention prolonged the conflict — I think it’s likely that there would have been a much longer anti-Qaddafi insurgency in East Libya had the US done nothing. Second, there’s evidence, at least in Mali, that the coup that precipitated the current crisis was caused by longstanding dissatisfaction with the government on the part of the military. The arms that came in from Libya were a proximate cause, but not a necessary one.

I get into all this because it has some bearing on the question of the desirability of things like the UN intervention in the Congo. Weighing the consequences of the status quo versus those of intervention is always critical.

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 3:36 pm

You mentioned earlier the radios given to out to “track” the LRA, so they can not hide and helps villages escape raids. Who is behind this effort? It seems so simple.

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 3:36 pm
In response to David Axe @ 58

Arguably worse. The Belgian occupation of the Congo was at the time a humanitarian cause celebre; it’s now believed to be one of the worst colonial regimes in history. That’s saying something.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:39 pm
In response to BevW @ 61

It’s a collaboration between Invisible Children, the Catholic Church in Congo, the U.N. and Ugandan troops. IC deserves a lot of credit, as they oversee the effort. The Church operates the radios.

CTuttle May 11th, 2013 at 3:39 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 60

You do realize that Qadaffi, 9 mos prior to his toppling, had earmarked $20 billion for an African Development Bank, with South Africa, and several other nations, to wean Africa off of the IMF/World Bank colonial teat…?

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 3:43 pm
In response to David Axe @ 64

Do you see any evidence that these concerns about the early warning network ended up coming true? http://www.rnw.nl/africa/article/congo-army-use-invisible-children-community-radios-may-endanger-civilians

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:47 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 66

It’s a valid concern but I haven’t seen the radios having that negative effect. Doesn’t mean it can’t happen, just that it apparently has not yet. There’s definitely risk in equipping people to fight armed groups, as it could make the people targets. Of course, in this case, the people already ARE targets.

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 3:50 pm

As we come to the last few minutes of this great Book Salon discussion,

David, Thank you for stopping by the Lake and spending the afternoon with us discussing your new book, and the story of the Army of God.

Zack, Thank you very much for Hosting this great Book Salon.

Everyone, if you would like more information:

David’s website (War Is Boring) and book (Army of God) and Twitter

Zack’s website (ThinkProgress) and Twitter

Thanks all, Have a great weekend.

Tomorrow: Gar Alperovitz / What Then Must We Do?: Straight Talk About the Next American Revolution; Host – David Dayen

If you would like to contact the FDL Book Salon: FiredoglakeBookSalon@gmail.com

FDL Book Salon has a Facebook page too

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 3:51 pm
In response to David Axe @ 67

Interesting to hear that’s what you saw. It’s always easy to poke theoretical holes in efforts to help deal with threats like the LRA, but the ultimate test is what’s actually happening on the ground.

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 3:52 pm
In response to BevW @ 68

Thanks for having us, Bev – really appreciated the conversation.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:53 pm
In response to Zack Beauchamp @ 70

Yes, thanks! Any last questions?

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 3:54 pm

What are your plans now – next trip? new project?

CTuttle May 11th, 2013 at 3:54 pm

Mahalo Nui Loa, Bev, David, and, Zack for this excellent Book Salon…! *g*

BevW May 11th, 2013 at 3:56 pm

Everyone – if you only read one book on the Darfur, Congo, LRA, conflict – this is the book, it is concise, provides excellent background information, and puts a human face to the story – and it is a graphic novel.

David Axe May 11th, 2013 at 3:57 pm
In response to BevW @ 72

Just got back from Afghanistan, so at present my plans amount to “beer.”

Zack Beauchamp May 11th, 2013 at 3:58 pm
In response to David Axe @ 75

It’s a shame FDL doesn’t have a “like” button for this comment.

CTuttle May 11th, 2013 at 4:02 pm
In response to David Axe @ 75

Cheers, David…! ;-)

Natty Rebel May 12th, 2013 at 4:34 am
In response to David Axe @ 58

You want to read about the horrors of the Belgian Congo read Adam Hochschild’s harrowing book King Leopold’s Ghosts

Sorry but the comments are closed on this post